Below are some start-ups or at least young companies in this cryptocurrency space that are trying to move beyond primary exchange functionality (simple order books) and/or hosted wallet services. Note: this is not an endorsement of them as an investment or service.
API: Chain, Blockr, HelloBlock, BlockCypher, HiBitcoin
Analytics: Coinalytics, Coinometrics
KYC: CoinTrust, Block Score, Coin Validation
Decentralized cloud: MaidSafe, StackMonkey, decloud, Bitcloud, StorJ
Hedging/lending: BTCJam, Bitreserve, Bitfinex
Platforms: SecondMarket (BIT), CampBX, TruCoin, Coinfloor, Atlas ATS, Kraken, Coinsetter, Vaurum, itBit, ICBIT, LedgerX
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I wanted to mention that one way of looking at the vending machines set up by Vennd (vennd. io) is that if there are a multitude of them, then they form a sort of decentralised exchange. The decentralised exchange is dynamic and evolves like a swarm.