Earlier today I participated in a virtual panel covering smart contracts called, “Let’s Talk Smart Contracts.”
The panel included: Adam Krellenstein (Counterparty), Oleg Andreev (CoreBitcoin), Pamela Morgan (Empowered Law), Stefan Thomas (Codius, Ripple Labs), Stephan Tual (Ethereum), Tim Swanson (Of Numbers), Yurii Rashkovskii (Trustatom) and it was moderated by Roman Snitko with Straight.
Below are some transcribed notes of my own statements.
Introduction starting at 09:06:
Hey guys, great to be here. Thanks for the invite, thanks for organizing this. So I’m here because you guys needed another white guy from Europe or something like that (that’s a joke). So the definition I have of smart contracts, I have written a couple books in this space, and the definition I use is a smart contract is “a proposed tool to automate human interactions: it is a computer protocol – an algorithm – that can self-execute, self-enforce, self-verify, and self-constrain the performance of a contract.” I think I got most of that definition from Nick Szabo’s work. For those of you who are familiar with him, look up some of his past writings. I think that the primary work he is known for is the paper, “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks.” And he is basically considered the [intellectual] grandfather of this space. I’m here basically to provide education and maybe some trolling.
From 22:02 -> 24:15
I think I see eye-to-eye with Adam here. Basically the idea of how we have a system that is open to interpretation, you do have reversibility, you do have nebulousness. These are things that Nick Szabo actually discussed in an article of his called “Wet code and dry” back in 2008. If you look back at some of the earlier works of these “cypherpunks” back in the ’90s, they talked about some of these core issues that Oleg talked about in terms of being able to mitigate these trusted parties. In fact, if you look at the Bitcoin whitepaper alone, the first section has the word “reverse” or “reversibility” around 5 times and the word “trust” or “trusted” appears 11 times in the body of the work. This was something that whoever created Bitcoin was really interested in trying to mitigate the need for any kind of centralized or third party involved in the process of transactions to reduce the mediation costs and so forth.
But I suppose my biggest criticism in this space, it is not pointed to anyone here in particular, is how we have a lot of “cryptocurrency cosplay.” Like Mary Sue Bitcoin. I’m not sure if you guys are familiar with who Mary Sue is: she is this archetype who is this kind of idealized type of super hero in a sense. So what happens with Bitcoin and smart contracts is that you have this “Golden Age” [of Comics] where you had the limited ideas of what it could do. Like Superman for example, when he first came out he could only jump over a building and later he was pushed to be able to fly because it looks better in a cartoon. You have only a limited amount of space [time] and it takes too long to jump across the map. So that’s kind of what I see with Bitcoin and smart contracts. We can talk about that a little bit later, just how they have evolved to encompass these attributes that they’re probably not particularly good at. Not because of lack of trying but just because of the mechanisms of how they work in terms of incentives for running mining equipment and so on. So, again we can talk about that later but I think Adam and Oleg have already mentioned the things that are pretty important at this point.
40:18 -> 41:43
I’m the token cynic, huh? So actually before I say anything, I would like to mention to the audience other projects that you might be interested in looking at: BitHalo; NotaryChains is a new project that encompasses some of these ideas of Proof of Existence created by Manuel Araoz, he is the one who did POE. NotaryChains is a new project I think that sits on top of Mastercoin. The issue that people should consider is that proof of existence/proof of signature: these are just really hi-tech forms of certification. Whether or not they’re smart contracts I guess is a matter of debate.
There is another project: Pebble, Hyperledger, Tezos, Tendermint, Nimblecoin. With Dogethereum their project is called Eris which apparently is the first DAO ever. A DAO for the audience is a decentralized autonomous organization, it’s a thing apparently. SKUChain is a start-up in Palo Alto, I talk about them in chapter 16. They have this interesting idea of what they call a PurchaseChain which is a real use-case for kind of updating the process from getting a Letter of Credit to a Bill of Lading and trying to cut out time and mediation costs in that process. There are a few others in stealth mode. So I really don’t have a whole lot to add with cynicism at this point, we can go on and come back to me in a little bit.
59:41 -> 1:02:35
The go to deficiency guy, huh? They’re not really saying anything particularly controversial, these things are fundamentally — at least from an engineering perspective — could be done. The problem though I think runs into is what Richard Boase discussed in — if listeners are interested — he went to Kenya and he did a podcast a few weeks ago on Let’s Talk Bitcoin #133. I really recommend people listen to it. In it he basically talks about all of these real world issues that run into this idealized system that the developers are building. And as a result, he ended up seeing all of these adoption hurdles, whether it was education or for example tablets: people were taking these tablets with bitcoin, and they could just simply resell it on a market, the tablet itself was worth more than they make in a year basically; significant more money. He talked about a few issues like P2P giving, lending and charity and how that doesn’t probably work like we think it does.
I guess the biggest issue that is facing this space, if you want issues, is just the cost benefit analysis of running these systems. There is a cost somewhere to run this stuff on many different servers, there is different ways to come up with consensus for this: for example, Ripple, Stellar, Hyperledger, they’re all using consensus ledgers which require a lot less capital expenditures. But when you end up building something that requires some kind of mining process itself, that costs money. So I think fundamentally in the long-run it won’t be so much what it can do but what can it economically do.
So when you hear this mantra of let’s decentralize everything, sure that’s fine and dandy but that’s kind of like Solutionism: a solution looking for a problem. Let’s decentralize my hair — proof of follicle — there is a certain reductio ad absurdum which you come to with this decentralization. Do you want to actually make something that people are actually going to use in a way that is cheaper than an existing system or we just going to make it and throw it out there and think they’re going to use it because we designed [wanted] it that way. So I think education is going to be an issue and there are some people doing that right now: Primavera De Fiillipi, she’s over at Harvard’s Berkman Center — she’s got something called the Common Accord program. And also Mike Hearn; listeners if you’re interested he’s made about 7 or 8 use-cases using the existing Bitcoin blockchain including assurance contracts — not insurance contracts — assurance contracts. And he’s got a program called Lighthouse which hopes to build this onto the actual chain itself. So there are things to keep in mind, I’m sure I’ll get yelled at in a minute here.
1:23:58 -> 1:28:10
Anyone listening to this wanting to get involved with smart contracts: hire a lawyer, that’s my immediate advice. I will preface by saying I don’t necessarily agree with policies that exist and so on; I don’t personally like the status quo but there is no reason to be a martyr for some crusade led by guys in IRC, in their little caves and stuff like that. That’s not towards anyone here in this particular chat but you see this a lot with “we’re going to destroy The Fed” or “destroy the state” and the reality is that’s probably not going to happen. But not because of lack of trying but because that’s not how reality works.
Cases right now are for example: DPR, Shavers with the SEC, Shrem now with the federal government, Karpeles [Mt. Gox] went bankrupt. What’s ended up happening is in 2009, with Bitcoin for example, you started with a system that obviated the need of having trusted third parties but as users started adopting it you ended up having scams, stolen coins, people losing coins so you ended up having an organic growth of people wanting to have insurance or some way to mediate these transactions or some way to make these things more efficient. And I think that it will probably happen — since we’re guessing, this is speculative — I think that this will kind of happen with smart contracts too. That’s not to say smart contracts will fail or anything like that. I’m just saying that there will probably just be a few niche cases initially especially since we don’t have much today, aside I guess from Bitcoin — if you want to call it a smart contract.
What has ironically happened, is that we have created — in order to get rid of the middlemen it looks like you’ve got to reintroduce middlemen. I’m not saying it will always be the case. In empirical counter-factual it looks like that’s where things are heading and again obviously not everyone will agree with me on that and they’ll call me a shill and so on. But that’s kind of where I see things heading.
I have a whole chapter in a book, chapter 17. I interviewed 4 or 5 lawyers including Pamela [Morgan] of different reasons why this could take place. For example, accredited investor — for those who are unfamiliar just look up ‘accredited investor.’ If you’re in the US, in order to buy certain securities that are public, you need to have gone through certain procedure to be considered a ‘sophisticated investor.’ This is one of the reasons why people do crowdsales outside of the US — Ethereum — because you don’t want to have to interact with the current legal system in the US. The reason I mention that is because you end up opening yourselves to lawsuit because chains — like SWARM — cannot necessarily indemnify users. That’s legal terminology for being able to protect your users from lawsuits from third parties; they just do not have the money, the revenue to support that kind of legal defense. Unlicensed practice of law (UPL) is another issue. If you end up putting up contracts on a network one of the issues could be, at least in the US, are bar associations. Bar associations want to protect their monopoly so they go after people who practice law without a license. I’m not saying it will happen but it could happen.
My point with this is, users, anyone listening to this should definitely do your due diligence, do your education. If you plan to get involved with this space either as an investor or developer or so on, definitely at least talk to a lawyer that has some inkling of of an idea [on this]. The ones I recommend, in addition to Pamela here are: Ryan Straus, he is a Seattle-based attorney with Riddell Williams; Austin Brister and James Duchenne they’re with a program called Satoshi Legal; and then Preston Byrne, who’s out in London and he’s with Norton Rose Fulbright.
1:52:20 -> 1:54:43
Guys look, I understand that sounds cool in theory and it’s great to have everything in the background, but the reason you have to see these “shrink wrapped” EULAs [end user license agreements] and TOSs [terms of service] is because people were hiding stuff inside those agreements. So if you hide what’s actually taking place in the contract you end up making someone liable for something they might not actually agree to. So I’m not sure, I think it’s completely debatable at this point. If we’re trying to be transparent, then you’re going to have to be transparent with the terms of agreement.
I should point out by the way, check out Mintchalk.com, it’s run by guys named James and Aaron in Palo Alto, they’re doing contract building. ACTUS is a program from the Stevens Institute, they’re trying to come with codified language for contracts. Mark S. Miller, he’s got a program over at Google, he does something with e-rights.
I mention all of this because, we already have a form of “polycentric law” if you will in terms of internationally with 200 different jurisdictions vying for basically jurisdiction arbitrage. Ireland and the Netherlands have a tax agreement that Facebook, Google, Pfizer they take advantage of. It’s this Double Irish With a Dutch Sandwich. In fact my own corporation is incorporated in Delaware because of the legal arbitrage [opportunities]. Obviously smart contracts might add some sort of new wrinkle to that, but people who are listening to this, don’t expect to be living in some Galt’s Gulch tomorrow or something like that.
For example, when you have something that is stolen, there is something called Coinprism which is a colored coin project. They can issue dividends on stock. The cool thing with that is, “hey, you get to decentralize that.” The double-edged side of that is if that when that get’s stolen: people steal stuff like bitcoins and so forth, what happens to the performance of that dividend? If the company continues paying that dividend in knowing that the person had been stolen from: if somebody stole from me and I tell the company, “hey, it was stolen” and they continue paying, then I can sue them for continuing to pay a thief. If they stop paying then it defeats the purpose of decentralization because anonymity is given up, identity has taken place. Obviously this moves into another area called “nemo dat” it’s another legal term talking about what can be returned to the rightful owner, that’s where the term “bona fide” comes from. Anyways, I wanted to get that out there. Be wary of disappearing EULAs, those have a purpose because people were being sued for hiding stuff in there.
2:10:05 -> 2:12:23
So I think everybody and all these projects are well-intentioned and have noble goals but they’re probably over-hyped in the short-run, just like the Segway was. It eventually leads to some kind of burnout, or over-promise and under-delivering. I’m not saying this will happen, I’m just saying it could happen. I actually think the immediate future will be relatively mundane, such as wills and trusts kind of like Pamela was talking about.
One particular program is in Kenya there is something called Wagenitech which is run by Robin Nyaosi and he is wanting to help farmers move, manage and track produce to market to bypass the middleman. That doesn’t seem like something really “sexy,” that doesn’t seem like the “Singularity” kind of thing that everyone likes to talk about. But that is needed for maybe that particular area and I think we might see more of that along with PurchaseChain, NotaryChains, some of these things that we already do with a lot of the paperwork.
Again, blockchains and distributed ledgers are pretty good at certain things, but not everything. It has real limitations that vocal adopters on the subreddit of Bitcoin like to project their own philosophical views onto it and I think that it does it a very big disservice to this technology long-term. For example, LEGO’s can be used to make a car but you wouldn’t want to go driving around in one. A laptop could be used as a paper weight but it’s not particularly cost effective to do that. And so what I think we’ll end up running into a tautology with smart contracts, it’s going to be used by people who need to use them. Just like bitcoin is. So what we’re going to have is a divergence between what can happen, this “Superman” version of Bitcoin and smart contracts, versus the actual reality.
So for example, people say it’s [Bitcoin] going to end war. You had the War of Spanish Succession, there was a Battle of Denain, a quarter million people fought that in 1712 and it was gold-based [financed by specie]. Everyone that says bitcoin is going to destroy fiat, if the state exists as it does today there’s always going to be these institutions and types of aggression. I do think smart contracts do add collateral and arbitration competition and it does take away the problem of having trust in the system itself, but the edges are the kryptonite. And always will be. So we need to focus on education and creating solutions to real actual problems today with the actual technology and not just some hypothetical “Type 2” civilization where we are using [harvesting] the Sun for all of our energy.